Cognitive processing relies on multiple types of memory, and each uses a distinct set of representations and processes. This was a clear victory for the cognitive neuroscience approach over purely behavioral approaches. On one hand, some psychologists and philosophers argued that the pictorial characteristics of visual mental images that are evident to experience are epiphenomenal, like heat produced by a light bulb when someone is reading—something that could be experienced but played no role in accomplishing the function.
On the other hand, cognitive neuroscientists argued that visual mental images are analogous to visual percepts in that they use space in a representation to specify space in the world. This debate went back and forth for many years without resolution, and at one point a mathematical proof was offered that behavioral data alone could never resolve it Anderson, A key p. That is, these areas use space on the cortex to represent space in the world. In the early s, researchers showed that visualizing objects typically activates these areas, and increasing the size of a visual mental image activates portions of this cortex that register increasingly larger sizes in perception.
Moreover, in the late s researchers showed that temporarily impairing these areas using TMS hampers imagery and perception to the same degree. Hence, these brain-based findings provided clear evidence that visual mental images are, indeed, analogous to visual percepts in that both represent space in the world by using space in a representation. We have written as if both debates—about memory systems and mental imagery representation—are now definitely closed. But this is a simplification; not everyone is convinced of one or another view.
Our crucial point is that the advent of neuroscientific data has shifted the terms of the debate.
When only behavioral data were available, in both cases the two alternative positions seemed equally plausible—but after the relevant neuroscientific data were introduced, the burden of proof shifted dramatically to one side—and a clear consensus emerged in the field e. In the years since these debates, evidence from cognitive neuroscience has constrained theories of a wide range of phenomena.
Many such examples are chronicled in this Handbook. Cognitive neuroscience in the new millennium is a broad and diverse field, defined by a multileveled integrative approach. The first volume surveys classic areas of interest in cognitive neuroscience: perception, attention, memory, and language. Twenty years ago when Kevin Ochsner was a graduate student and Stephen Kosslyn was one of his professors, research on these topics formed the backbone of cognitive neuroscience research. And this is still true today, for two reasons. First, when cognitive neuroscience took off, these were the areas of research within psychology that had the most highly developed behavioral, psychological, and neuropsychological i.
And in the case of research on perception, attention, and memory, these were topics for which fairly detailed models of the underlying neural circuitry already had been developed on the basis of rodent and nonhuman primate studies. As such, these areas were poised to benefit from the use of brain-based techniques in humans. Second, research on the representations and processes used in perception, attention, memory, and language in many ways forms a foundation for studying other kinds of complex behaviors, which are the focus of the second volume. This is true both in terms of the findings themselves and in terms of the evidence such findings provided that the cognitive neuroscience approach could be successful.
With this in mind, each of the four sections in Volume 1 includes a selection of chapters that cover core processes and the ways in which they develop across the lifespan and may break down in special populations. The first section, on perception, includes chapters on the abilities to represent and recognize objects and spatial relations. In addition, this section contains chapters on the use of top-down processes in visual perception and on the ways in which such processes enable us to construct and use mental images. We also include chapters on perceptual abilities that have seen tremendous research growth in the past 5 to 10 years, such as on the study of olfaction, audition, and music perception.
Finally, there is a chapter on disorders of perception. The second section, on attention, includes chapters on the abilities to attend to auditory and spatial information as well as on the relationships between attention, action, and visual motor control.
Hypothesis and Theory ARTICLE
These are followed by chapters on the development of attention and its breakdown in various disorders. The third section, on memory, includes chapters on the abilities to maintain information in working memory as well as semantic memory, episodic memory, and the consolidation process that governs the transfer of information from working to semantic and episodic memory.
There is also a chapter on the ability to acquire skills, which depends on different systems than those used in other forms of memory, as well as chapters on changes in memory function with older age and the ways in which memorial processes break down in various disorders. Finally, the fourth section, on language, includes chapters on abilities such as speech perception and production, the distinction between linguistic p.
As noted earlier, in many ways the success of these relatively newer research directions builds on the successes of research in the classic domains. Indeed, our knowledge of the systems implicated in perception, attention, memory, and language literally—and in this Handbook —provided the foundation for the work described in Volume 2. The first section, on emotion, begins with processes involved in interactions between emotion, perception, and attention, as well as the generation and regulation of emotion.
This is followed by chapters that provide models for understanding broadly how emotion affects cognition as well as the contribution that bodily sensation and control make to affective and other processes. This section concludes with chapters on genetic and developmental approaches to emotion. The second section, on self and social cognition, begins with a chapter on the processes that give rise to the fundamental ability to know and understand oneself. This section concludes with a chapter on the development of social cognitive abilities.
The third section, on higher cognitive functions, surveys abilities that largely depend on processes in the frontal lobes of the brain, which interact with the kinds of core perceptual, attentional, and memorial processes described in Volume 1. Here, we include chapters on conflict monitoring and cognitive control, the hierarchical control of action, thinking, decision making, categorization, expectancies, numerical cognition, and neuromodulatory influences on higher cognitive abilities.
Finally, in the fourth section, four chapters illustrate how disruptions of the mechanisms of cognition and emotion produce abnormal functioning in clinical populations. This section begins with a chapter on attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder and from there moves to chapters on anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, and obsessive-compulsive disorder. First, we edited this Handbook with the goal of providing a broad-reaching compendium of research on cognitive neuroscience that will be widely accessible to a broad audience.
Toward this end, the chapters included in this Handbook are available online to be downloaded individually. Second, we hope that, whether you are a student, an advanced researcher, or an interested layperson, this Handbook whets your appetite for learning more about this exciting and growing field.
Although reading survey chapters of the sort provided here is an excellent way to become oriented in the field and to start building your knowledge of the topics that interest you most, we encourage you to take your interests to the next level: Delve into the primary research articles cited in these chapters—and perhaps even get involved in doing this sort of research! Anderson, J. Arguments concerning representations for mental imagery. Psychological Review , 85 , — Find this resource:. Belliveau, J. Magnetic resonance imaging mapping of brain function: Human visual cortex.
Investigative Radiology , 27 Suppl 2 , S59—S Caramazza, A. Is cognitive neuropsychology possible? Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience , 4 , 80— Churchland, P. Perspectives on cognitive neuroscience. Science , , — Corkin, S. Nature Reviews, Neuroscience , 3 , — Fisher, H. Defining the brain systems of lust, romantic attraction, and attachment. Archives of Sexual Behavior , 31 , — Gardner, H. New York: Basic Books. Kihlstrom, J. Social neuroscience: The footprints of Phineas Gage.
Social Cognition , 28 , — Kosslyn, S. Is cognitive neuropsychology plausible? The perils of sitting on a one-legged stool. Themes Cognitive Neuroscience. Cognitive Neuroscience. Our team. Erie Boorman. Timothy Behrens Professor of Computational Neuroscience. Catherine Harmer Professor of Cognitive Neuroscience. Simon Lovestone Professor of Translational Neuroscience. A second set of challenges arises when experimental cognitive tasks are incorporated into noninvasive neuroimaging studies of the neural correlates of task performance. While significant progress has already been made using this approach, 8 and its potential for facilitating translational research is compelling, relatively little formal information is available about the reliability of these brain-based measures.
Understanding the measurement properties of cognitive neuroscience—based measures will involve fairly large-scale studies both within and across sites.
Patient-based Approaches to Cognitive Neuroscience by Martha J. Farah, Todd E. Feinberg - asimaqacyd.ml
Substantial progress has been made in developing technical solutions to problems associated with pooling data acquired on different MRI scanners, 18 making this approach feasible at this point. However, such studies will require significant cognitive and neuroimaging expertise as well as a great deal of time-consuming effort. In a recent review Honey and Bullmore describe the results of over 50 pharmaco-fMRI studies that have investigated the effects on brain activity of a range of different neuromodulatory drugs across a range of cognitive domains in both healthy subjects and patient groups.
However, as noted above, in order to gain the confidence of industry and other key groups in the use of these measures it will be important to obtain more basic data on the reliability of these tools. The application of a cognitive neuroscientific approach of the kind described above offers unprecedented new opportunities for refining and accelerating drug discovery for impaired cognition in schizophrenia.
For example, a critical and potentially costly and time-consuming juncture in the development of a new therapy occurs 1 step earlier in the process than the clinical trial phase, when companies must decide whether to take a drug forward into costly human clinical trials based upon preclinical data and preliminary human toxicology. Pharmacological fMRI may provide a very helpful tool at this juncture. Based upon the example described above for cholinesterase inhibitor effects on working memory systems in the healthy and dementing human brain, if a drug performs well in an animal model and is safe in humans but has no impact on the human circuits supporting the targeted cognitive system, this should raise concerns regarding its likely performance in clinical trials.
The integration of cognitive imaging with more refined animal models has the potential to transform decision making in the early phases of drug development by providing concrete data on drug effects on cognition-related brain circuitry in schizophrenia. Significant progress has been made over the past several years in recognizing the functional significance of cognitive impairments in schizophrenia and the importance of developing treatments for this disabling aspect of the illness. We will have the opportunity to refine our measurement of cognition in schizophrenia to focus on more precisely specified and measured cognitive mechanisms and to distinguish between disturbances in these functions and generalized deficits such as diminished motivation, drug-induced sedation, and the like.
This new approach will also allow us to measure, directly, drug effects on the altered neural activity that underlies impaired cognition in patients with schizophrenia using methods such as fMRI. Considerable development is needed in order to realize these possibilities, most importantly an ongoing collaboration between cognitive neuroscientists and psychometricians. It may well be that it is through such a collaboration that a new, interdisciplinary approach to measuring cognition in schizophrenia will emerge that will combine the specificity of cognitive psychological measures and their growing links to neural systems with optimal psychometric properties.
The potential reward for this effort will be a more targeted and streamlined process of drug discovery and development that will address, more effectively, the challenge of developing effective therapies for impaired cognition in schizophrenia. Schematic representation of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task WCST , a sensitive but not specific clinical neuropsychological test widely used to measure cognitive deficits in schizophrenia. In addition to lacking a control for the presence of generalized performance deficits poor motivation, sedation, poor test-taking skills, etc.
Schematic representation of effect sizes of a generalized performance deficit poor motivation, sedation, poor test-taking skills during the performance of 2 versions of a working memory task with 2 conditions easy, short delay, low working memory demand; and hard, long delay, high working memory demand that have differential discriminating power. The increased effect size in the more difficult working memory task may create the illusion of a specific deficit in working memory when, in fact, only a generalized deficit may be present.
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Developmental Neuroethics: Neuroscience, Childhood and Society
The Measurement of Specific Cognitive Functions. Developing a Translational Neuropharmacology of Cognition in Schizophrenia. To whom correspondence should be addressed; tel: , fax: , e-mail: cameron. Oxford Academic. Google Scholar. Cite Citation. Permissions Icon Permissions. Abstract New approaches to the measurement of cognition in schizophrenia include the use of tasks from experimental cognitive psychology to examine the integrity of specific cognitive systems and the application of these tasks in noninvasive neuroimaging e.
Cognitive psychology , cognitive neuroscience , neuropsychology , schizophrenia , cognitive enhancement. Open in new tab Download slide. Green, MF. What are the functional consequences of neurocognitive deficits in schizophrenia? Am J Psychiat. Cognitive experimental approaches to investigating impaired cognition in schizophrenia: a paradigm shift. J Clin Exp Neuropsychopharm. Problems in the measurement of cognitive deficit. Psychol Bull. The measurement of differential deficit.
J Psychiat Res. Spatial working memory deficits and their relationship to negative symptoms in unmedicated schizophrenia patients. Biol Psychiat. Strauss, ME.